Mt Athamanon, also known as Mt Tzoumerka, is the natural boundary between the Epirus and Thessaly regions. Its one of the longest and most remote parts of the southern Pindos range. The main substrate is limestone, with sporadic appearance of flysch. Its a continuous ridge situated in a NW-SE direction, highest summit being Mt Katafidi at 2393m. In the past the Ori Athamanon were densely forested in recent years however, they have suffered from irrational deforestation due to excessive wood-cutting and grazing. For this reason extensive bare places occur, but despite this we can still find some well forested slopes with coniferous forests, where Taxus baccata exists in small stands or as isolated trees, and broad leaved deciduous forests.
Mt Falakro is situated near the city of Drama, north eastern Greece. It consists mainly of crystalline-schist bedrock with some granites. The bedrock is build up from limestones of the marble series. On the rocky limestone areas the forest cover is sparse and soil occurs only in crevices. There are some rich forests of coniferous and broad leaved species on the lower altitudes. It has a large concentration of rare plants. Highest summit is Profitis Ilias at 2232m.
The dominant geological formations of Mt Gramos are Pindos flysch and of the ophiolithic complex. The most frequent rocks resulting from these formations are sandstone, schist, slate, conglomerate and serpentine. Limestone appears in great extend as well. The recorded flora of Gramos contains 650 taxa. Highest point is at 2520m.
Mt Kajmaktcalan is part of the Voras range, and is situated close to the Greek-Macedonian border. Profitis Ilias summit(2524m) with its chapel is even located right on the border. Its not a spectacular mountain, but has some unusual features like the schistose upper regions. The soils here are acidic and wet, with many streams and bogs. Here you can find a quite rich, typical north Balkan flora. There are 2 endemics to be found on Kajmaktcalan, the beautiful Dianthus myrtinervius ssp caespitosus and Ranunculus cacuminis. The lower slopes are covered with Chestnut and Beech and on the higher parts, the for Greece, unusual Pinus sylvestris forests.
Standing in isolation, situated on the borders of Thessaly and Macedonia in northern Greece, it is one of the most interesting botanical localities of the Balkans. The combination of long geographical isolation, an unusual range of climatical conditions, situated close to the sea and the meeting of Mediterranean and central European floras has resulted in a unique vegetation. Its a major refuge for some of the most exciting ancient endemic species of Europe. 23 unique species are found in this relatively small area and all being exclusively Balkan species. Mytikas summit (2918m) is the second highest in the Balkans. The summits of Olympos form a cone which has a diameter of about 20km, dissected by deep valleys. Like the wide Enipeus valley in the east and the narrower Papa Rema and Xerolakki ravines in the north. The eastern and northern slopes receive most moisture and have often a forest vegetation. Species of the alpine and upper montane zones, however, descend far below their normal range in these protected valleys. Olympos ia almost exclusively limestone, folded in the summit area and weathered into extensive screes in much of the alpine zone. The limestone is very porous, and although there is quite an amount of precipitation, the alpine area becomes very dry in summer.
Mt Orvilos is located on the border of south western Bulgaria and northern most Greece. From a geological point of view, Mt Orvilos belongs to the Rodopi crystalline massif and is connected, through Mt Vrondous, with mountains of north eastern Greece. Its an area with extended subalpine and alpine grasslands and high peaks. Highest summit is 2212m.
Mt Ossa, also called Mt Kissavos, is situated south-east of Mt Olympos and also close to the sea. On the seaward slopes dense forests of Castanea sativa, Taxus baccata, Acer pseudoplatanus and Aesculus hippocastanum occur. About above 400m Beech becomes frequent, at higher altitudes the Macedonian Fir mixed with Juniperus oxycedrus, Ostrya carpinifolia, Crataegus orientalis take over.Below the summit are mountain meadows, while Palamiotis summit(1976m) itself has rocky outcrops and some screes and magnificent views over Mt Ossa, Olympos and The Pilion peninsula.
Mt Pangeo (1956m) is situated in the north east of Greece, about 30km west of the city of Kavala. This mountain came as a pretty surprise to us, we had not expected such a rich flora! On its slopes are extensive Beech and Chestnut forests and pastures at higher altitudes. In the rocky parts of the mountain there are cliffs with rare endemic plants or plants with a restricted distribution in the Balkans.
Mt Peristeri, or Mt Lakmos, is situated south of the town of Metsovon and belongs to the south Pindos mountain range. The main rock in the area's substrate is limestone, in some areas mixed with flysch. Peristeri is a bare mountain, characterized by alpine and subalpine pastures, rocky and stony slopes, cliffs, mountain streams and springs. The mountain shows strong erosion because of intense deforestation.
This is one of the largest massifs in the Pindos range. It lies north of the Timfi range separated from it by the deep valley of the Aoos river. Another deep valley separates Smolikas from Mt Gramos on the Albanian border. Smolikas is of particular interest because its largely composed of serpentinite, a rock type rarely found in Greece, and which has a distinctive flora. Pinus nigra dominates the forests from about 1000m, replaced by Pinus heldreichii from 1500 until 1800m.
The Timfi massif lies south of Mt Smolikas. From Mt smolikas the dramatic, jagged skyline can be viewed. Because of the limestone, there is a karstic landscape with dry valleys and spectacular gorges like the Vikos gorge. Also in this area are the Papingo villages, reached by a spectacular road. From Mikro Papingo it is possible to walk up to the beautiful Timfi mountains and its Drakolimni lake.
Mt Tzena belongs to the Axios zone and mainly consists of schists and limestone, in contrast with the adjacent Voras range which is mainly ophiolitic. Along with neighbouring Mt Pinovo it forms a mountain range with steep slopes and characteristic bare rock faces. More than 50 percent of the site is forest land. Highest summit is Megali Tzena peak at 2182m.
Mt Varnous (2177m) is situated very close to the Greek-Macedonian(FYROM) border, not far from lake Prespa. Its the home of endemic Dianthus myrtinervius ssp myrtinervius. The silicious substrate and the continental climate have created exceptional conditions for the development of a rich and rare flora. Another important feature is the permanent flow of the Aghios Germanos river.
Mt Vermion is situated near the town of Naoussa. The slopes are densely forested with Beech and stands of Oak. The lower parts have some serpentinite and limestone, while the higher parts are mainly limestone.