Mt Giona lies to the west of Mt Parnassos and there are many similarities between the plant communities of both. The main substrate is limestone, only in some parts of the surface flysch and conglomerate deposits occur. There are many karstic formations, and even bauxite intercalating in the limestone. There are 3 main crests converging to the highest peak, being Mt Pyramidis at 2510m, the most important being the 13km long crest to the south. On both sides of the crest a ravine occurs, Reka to the east and Lazorema to the north. From 800-1800m Abies cephalonica is the dominant species, above this limit grazing areas occur. In the rocky formations and conglomerates adapted plant associations occur. The presence of a great number of endemic or important species in this range, especially in the rocky formations of its summits and steep slopes of the ravines makes the area of great ecological importance. On the other side does the existence of significant quantities of the mineral bauxite and its intense open cast mining have a negative impact on the whole ecosystem.
Parnassos, the sacred mountain of Apollo and the Muses, lies nearest the sea. Seen from the south its a massive dome shaped group of peaks, about 25km long, with Liakoura being the highest at 2455m. The climate is more continental with relatively cool yet dry summers, a rainy autumn and mostly heavy winters with up to 4m of snow which can last for at least 2 months. There are high alpine pastures, bare rocks and screes and an impressive Abies cephalonica forest. Since 1938 part of Parnassos is a National Park, unfortunately it has been facing a lot of problems, the most important being the lack of a periphery where some basic restrictions will ensure its better protection.
Timfristos, or Velouchi, mountain is situated north east of Karpenisi town and it forms a natural border between northern and southern Greece. It also belongs to the mountain range which separates east and west central Greece. Highest peak being Mt Velouchi at 2315m. The eastern half of the mountain is almost entirely composed of sandy and clayey flysch, in its western part hard, mainly platey limestone occurs.
The Vardousia mountain range is divided into 3 groups according to their peak arrangement, the highest being Mt Korakas at 2495m. The northern group has the smoothest relief, while the southern and western consist of abrupt crests and saddles. In the northern part flysch dominates in the lower parts and limestone in the higher areas. In the south concrete limestone dominates. These factors result in the formation of an extended plateau, especially in the northern part, while steep slopes and conglomerates occur in the south. The presence of flysch contributes to the creation of many torrents and streams. The vegetation is dominated by Abies cephalonica and in some areas Abies borisii regis. Above the forests extensive grazing land occurs, together with well adapted plant associations on the rockier parts.